Thursday, 20 December 2012


The population of a state is divided into two classes:
1. Citizens
2. Aliens

A citizen of a state enjoys full civil and political rights. the fundamental rights are available to citizens only.

the following fundamental rights are available to citizens only:

  1. Right not to be discriminated against any citizen on the grounds of RELIGION, RACE, CASTE, SEX or PLACE OF BIRTH.
  2. the right to EQUALITY of OPPORTUNITY in the matter of public employment.
  3. the right to six freedoms mentioned in article 19 i.e. freedom of speech and expression; assembly; association; movement; residence and profession.
  4. cultural and educational rights.
  5. right to vote.
the rights which are guaranteed under Article 14 and 21 are available to Alien also.

The following persons can become the citizens of India:

1. Citizenship by domicile- a person can be citizen by domicile if he fulfills the following conditions:
  • He must at the commencement of the constitution have domicile in the territory of India.
  • he must be born in India
  • his parents were born in India
  • he must have been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than 5 years before the commencement of constitution.
2. Citizenship from emigrants from PAKISTAN- the person who have migrated from Pakistan to India are classified into two categories:
  • who have came before 19 July 1948
  • who came after 19 July 1948
3. Citizenship of persons of Indian Origin residing outside India- Any person who's grandparents was born in India and who is ordinarily residing in any other country outside India shall be deemed to be a citizen of India.


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